Some varieties are vividly coloured with shades of red and yellow, while others are dull green. Agroforestry Systems, 32(3):247-260, OECD,, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. varietal nomenclatures under Mangifera indica and solve the challenges associated with the common names. London, UK: Academic Press. Online Database. Fruit length can range from 2.5 to >30 cm, depending on the cultivar. 3. open flower showing stamen and ovary. doi:10.1079/9781845934897.0000, Lopez DT, 1982. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. M. indica has active substances in its composition with high therapeutic potential. M. indica contains hundreds of cultivars, and is now pan-tropical and even sub-tropical. Mangifera indica, otherwise known as Mango, is a popular fruit tree and the national tree of Bangladesh. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. The stamens are central. Salinity-induced changes in growth morphology, gas exchange and leaf abscisic acid level of fifteen polyembryonic mango (Mangifera indica L.) genotypes In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences Authors: P.K. 4. Anti-tumor promoting activity of decoctions and expressed juices from Philippine medicinal plants. Flowering Season: Winter, Spring. Mangifera indica Figure 1. Silva-Luz CL, Pirani JR, 2014. The red blush is due to the presence of anthocyanins. The fruit is a drupe, and hangs from the tree on long stems when it matures. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. 5 (2). Document International Research Group on Wood Preservation, No. PROTA4U web database. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Flora Malesiana Vol. It fruits easily in an 8” pot at just 4’ tall. Mangoes growing on a tree ( Mangifera indica ). The natural distribution of M. indica is in the Indo-Malesian region, specifically India and Myanmar. 3. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Note: Wild Mangos can be infected with Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), a fungus that causes spreading black decay spots on ripe fruit. Kepong, Malaysia: FRIM, Schutt P, Schuck HJ, Aas G, Lang UM, eds, 1994. Middle-aged Mango. Barbados: University of the West Indies. can ruin even a heavy bloom and are important mango pests. Introduction Mango (Mangifera indica L.), belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, is widely found in tropical and sub- tropical regions. A., Raza, S. A., Asad, H. U., 2012. Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops, CAB International.xxiv + 723 pp. The leaves have wavy margins, parallel pinnate veins, a pale midrib, and are shiny, dark green above, lighter green below, hairless, leathery, alternate, and oblong-lanceolate in shape. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. The single large seed is flattened, and the flesh that surrounds it is yellow to orange in colour, juicy, and of distinctive sweet-spicy flavour. Sterilization of mango wood (Mangifera indica L.) without heat. Anacardiaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Anacardiaceae in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Description by John Smith (1798 - 1888) Public domain. A sinus is always present above the beak. In India and the subcontinent, the seed is used for extraction of starch ‘amchur’, and the peels (skin) have been used as a source of anacardic acid., Mitcham, E., Yahia, E., 2009. Online Database. The flavour ranges from turpentine to sweet. 1995. Flora of China. Infection dynamics of Fusarium mangiferae, causal agent of mango malformation disease. Miami, USA: Echo Point Books & Media, 221-239, Mukherjee SK, 1972. Avances en las investigaciones farmacológicas y toxicológicas con el extracto acuoso de la corteza del árbol de mango (Mangifera indica L). Vol. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution., Randall RP, 2012. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristic of different types of mango fruits grown in Darfur regions and its use in jam processing. There are over a thousand varieties around the world, with India having more than 50% (over 500 named). There are five large, fleshy stamens, only one or two of them being fertile; the remaining stamens are sterile staminodes that are surmounted by a small gland. The dark-brown spots can develop at any time. In: Fruits of Warm Climates [ed. Micro anatomic features taxonomic audit of mangifera varieties successfully investigated in this study is maiden and novel. II: Silvicultural systems. The root system consists of a long, vigorous taproot and abundant surface feeder roots, enabling the tree to find the moisture necessary for flowering/flushing during the dry season. Hawaii, USA: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. Lahiry AK, 1995. Studies of several mango cultivars have shown biennial flowering but most varieties flower only once a year. The chromosome number reported for M. indica is n = 20 (Singhal and Gill, 1990). Some 25 fungus diseases affect mango, the most serious and widespread disease being anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). II. Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. The plant is an evergreen tree which can reach the height of about 25 m and a diameter exceeding the metre in the old specimens, with very similar characteristics to those of the Mangifera indica, which please see; the most important difference stands in the fruits which are ovoid, slightly compressed, long about 6 cm, weighing 50 to 80 grams, of dark purple colour, almost completely black when ripen. Conservation of the Mango and its relatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Mangifera. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96, Parrotta JA, 1993. New Orleans, LA, USA: USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Paull, R. E., Duarte, O., 2010. A good crop of fruit is obtained when only a small percentage of the flowers are pollinated. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. 655 pp. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. The ovule is anatropous and pendulous. Manual of Malayan Timbers. Mango has been cultivated in India for thousands of years. Volume III. Vol 6. In: National Mango Board,, Morton J, 1987. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, 265-285, Saw LG, 1987., DAISIE, 2014. Wild populations can be found in the Assam-Chittagong Hills in India and in Myanmar. Growth Habit: Tree. The ratio of male to perfect flowers is strongly influenced by environmental and cultural factors. The bark is brown with numerous small fissures. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). IUCN, 2013. Principal sources: Litz (2009), Paull and Duarte (2010). Mango (Mangifera indica L.), is king of fruits due to its high palatability, excellent taste and flavour. At elevations above 600 m in the tropics the climate becomes too cool for the commercial cultivars, the optimum temperature being around 24-27°C. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Wayside trees of Malaya in two volumes (3rd edition). Manual of Indian silviculture: Pt. In brief, the leaves are simple with alternate arrangement. The PLANTS Database. Lack of fruit set is attributed to: (i) lack of fertile pollen; (ii) poor pollen-tube growth; (iii) failure of ovule fertilization; (iv) failure of pistil or ovules to develop; (v) abortions of embryo sac, embryo or endosperm; (vi) anthracnose disease of the flowers; and (vii) other physical and cultural factors. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of roughages and tree leaves. [Konsumi kayu bakar di Kabupaten Kupang (studi kasus di desa Bismarak, Oenoni, Oelpuah, dan Kotabes.] M. indica: 1, flowering franch; 2, branchlet with fruit. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications, USDA-ARS, 2014. Origin of Mango (Mangifera indica). pp.195, Litz, R. E., 2004. Mangifera indica fruit, known as mango, is considered as one of the best tropical fruits. M. indica belongs to subgenus Mangifera. Edible – The flesh of the ripe fruits is edible and delicious raw, cooked, dried, juiced, or pickled., PROTA, 2014. There is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the proximal end of the fruit. M. indica grows from sea level up to 1200 m in wet valleys, riversides, coastal forests and natural grasslands. In: Environmental Management, 41 (1) 32-51. Insect pollination of Mango in Northern Australia. There are also several bacterial diseases. PIER, 2014. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. It is now found in all the tropical and subtropical regions such as the Canary Islands, Madeira, along the shores of the Mediterranean, Australia, the Persian Gulf region, and in southern Brazil and the southern USA. Tropical fruits, Volume 1, (Ed.2) : CABI.viii + 391 pp. mango fruits. Philippine Geography Journal, 26(1):44-52, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. ... fruit and subtending hypocarp of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale, center), and young mango (Mangifera indica, right) fruit showing the funicle (left section). The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Miami, USA: Echo Point Books & Media. In south-east Asia, flowering starts at the beginning of the rainy season and fruits ripen at the end of the rainy season (Orwa et al., 2009). Description: The numerous, small, drably colored flowers are in erect, fuzzy, red-stemmed panicles at the branch tips. Flowers are visited and possibly pollinated by flies, ants, beetles and bats, but bees appear to be the most effective pollinators. General Information Mango is a large, evergreen tree with a dark green, umbrella-shaped, spreading crown; it can grow from 10 - … It has 300–6000 reddish-pink to greenish-white flowers (depending upon the cultivar), 5-8 mm in diameter, pedicels 1 mm long; calyx 5-lobed; 5 petals (twice as long as the calyx, ovate to ovoid to lanceolate and also thinly pubescent); pistil abortive in male flowers, style lateral, stigma simple. 1. Anderson DJ et al., 1966. Also, shoots of the last flush before flowering are less likely to break into bloom than twigs of previous flushes which have gone through much longer quiescent periods. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. In Hawaii, mango was first recorded in an introduction of several small plants from Manila in 1825 (Morton, 1987). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Caxton Press Ltd, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. The structure of some dwarf-heath and Birch-copse communities in Skjaldfannardalur, north-west Iceland. Kotur, S. C., 2012. Insects and mites infesting seedlings of mango in West Bengal. Morton J, 1987. Other fungus diseases are powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) (which infects flowers and fruitlets as well as the leaves), and leaf spots and various storage rots of the fruit. When a seedling mango comes into bearing  some terminal buds produce an inflorescence whereas other terminals extend a flush of shoots. Santalum, No. The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoff International Publishers, IUCN, 2013. In Puerto Rico, mangos have been grown since about 1750-1800, but in 1948 the University of Puerto Rico began a program of mango improvement with the introduction and testing of over 150 cultivars. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). by Elevitch, C. R.]. Mangoes grow in a wide range of soils and moisture regimes. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources and Linnean Society of London. Flushes occur more or less synchronously, depending upon the climate; during a long wet season the synchronization is gradually weakened. The green fruit is also used to flavour fish and meat dishes in the same way as tamarind and other sour fruits. Bark Brown, Blocky., Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Original citation: Chacon and Saborio (2012), Cultivated and naturalized; environmental weed, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Often interplanted with other fruits and vegetables, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. 30; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Forest Department, Zaman Z, Maiti B, 1994. 95-30065, 7 pp. It is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide in terms of production marketing , and consumption. 1192 pp. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Mango seeds are solitary, large and flat, ovoid oblong, and surrounded by the fibrous endocarp at maturity. Economic Botany, 26(3):260-264, Mukherjee SK, 1985., Sastry BN, ed. No. It got its name from a town in far north Queensland. It is a large fruit-tree, capable of growing to a height and crown width of about 30 metres (100 ft) and trunk circumference of more than 3.7 metres (12 ft). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 73(3):321-328, Bailey IH, 1925. M. indica spreads by seeds. The periods of new leaf growth are known as leaf flushing, and the Mango trees are very easy to spot and identify at these times. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Physical , chemical and functional properties of Nigerian Mango (Mangifera indica) kernel and its processed flour. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 33:541-548. Mangifera indica L. Mango. 132 pp. The juvenile period of seedling trees can range from 2 years under subtropical conditions  to 7 years, and mature trees can survive for several hundred years. The fruit grow fast: they ripen after 3-4 months, some late cultivars after 5 months. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 7(2), 134-137. Red List of Threatened Species. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Bonad ND, 1982. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants, 1(1):50-51; 4 ref, Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett, RT, 2009. Edible fruits and nuts. Fruit of this plant is large drupe, but differ in shape and size. Dye and tannin-producing plants. It mainly flowers in the cooler months of December through April. Environment and Ecology, 12(3):734-736, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. , 1962. The secondary veins are quite prominent, and in some of the varieties range from eighteen to thirty pairs. Characteristics of Pectin Isolated from Mango (Mangifera indica) and Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) Peel Rury Indriani, Anang Mohamad Legowo*, Siti Susanti Report to the Nature Conservancy. The exocarp is thick and glandular. It also thrives in open and disturbed areas along roadsides, pastures, and secondary wet and dry forests (Orwa et al., 2009). Leaves are spirally arranged, simple; young leaves are copper-coloured, turning to light then dark shiny green; petiole 1-12.5 cm long, with pulvinus at the base; blade variable in size and shape, usually narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 12-38 x 2-13 cm, somewhat leathery, tapering at base, margin often undulate, apex acuminate, nerves 12-30 pairs, elevated on both surfaces. The flora of Nauru. A Global Compendium of Weeds. After becoming established in Brazil, the mango was carried to the West Indies, where it was first planted in Barbados about 1742 and later in the Dominican Republic. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc, 446 pp, Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. It is commonly grown in East Asia. Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). It is widely cultivated for commercial fruit production, as a garden tree, and as shade tree in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The testa and tegumen are thin and papery. The seeds are recalcitrant and cannot survive for more than a few days or weeks at ambient temperatures. Common Names: Mango, Manako. The length and breadth varies from 12 to 45 cm and 2 to 12 cm, respectively, depending on variety and growth. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malayan Nature Society, DAISIE, 2014. Acta Horticulturae, (No.820), 483-486., Gamliel-Atinsky, E., Sztejnberg, A., Maymon, M., Vintal, H., Shtienberg, D., Freeman, S., 2009. Mango seeds were imported into Miami from the West Indies in 1862-1863. Anderson DL et al., 1982., Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. London, UK: Macmillan Co., 1985-89, Bally ISE, 2006. Mangiferin. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., The PLANTS Database. The midrib is yellow and quite visible, and the leaves also tend to droop downwards slightly. 68, pp.8, Meijer W, 1983. The mango varieties that we grow represent the finest selections from around the world including those selected here in Florida. Flower Color: Dull greenish to tinged purplish brown. The Wealth of India Raw Materials. Foul-smelling – The crushed leaves have a resinous, turpentine-like odor. Mango Tree - Mangifera indica, India Photograph by: Walter Hood Fitch (1817-1892) del. Anacardiaceae. 54 (3), (781-93). Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Yellowish green ripen fruits contai… The inflorescence can reach full bloom from the time of flower initiation in 25-30 days. Windhoek, Namibia: Ministry of Environment and Tourism. In India, the general flowering season is between January and March.,%202003.pdf, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Here in Hawaii, Mangos grow in lush valleys, along roadsides, and in former homesites at lower elevations. 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Of food and Agriculture, 73 ( 3 ):321-328, Bailey IH,.. Resinous and highly variable with respect to shape, size, colour, presence anthocyanins! Tree is a characteristic beak that develops laterally on the Status be used as firewood Germany: Verlagsgesellschaft... Low quality timber, and Kotabes )., http: //, Mitcham,,! ) of roughages and tree leaves seedlings of mango in West Bengal,!